An Instructional Plan for Balancing Chemical Reaction, Grade 9 Chemistry Using ASSURE Model
Lexter J. Mangubat
University of the Philippines Open University
EDS 151—Instructional Media Resource
Subject Title: Science 9
Specific Topic: Balancing Chemical Reactions
The students’ ages from 12-14 years old. The places they come from varies from Los Banos to Calamba City. They are all at the Grade 9 level. The class is consists of 40 students, 19 boys, and 21 girls. All of which came from average families. The institution that they go to is a public national school.
Before starting the instruction. The teacher must ensure that the students have the following:
- Knowledge of the chemical reactions definition
- Ability to differentiate reactants and products
- Understand the Law of Conservation of Mass and Law of Conservation of Atom
- Knowledge on the periodic table of elements and its symbols
- Ability to write chemical formulas, reaction, and symbols
The students have different learning styles and preferences. Half of the students want to perform hands-on activities, watch demonstration and group discussion. The other half are passive students who prefer only lectures, has a short attention span of almost 25 minutes, and less physical activities. The former half excel more in class and most of them have the intrinsic motivation of getting high grades and being members of the honor society. While on the other hand, the latter half only wants to go to school, sit on their chair, talk with their friends and eat.
After employing this instruction, the students should be able to:
- Balance a minimum of 10 basic chemical equation in a span of 15 minutes
- Demonstrate to the class the steps of balancing chemical equation without looking at their notes
- Balance at least 5 complex chemical equations
- Successfully answer problems involving balancing of equations; and
- Formulate the easiest way of balancing equation for them and share it with the class
Methods, Media, and Materials
- TREASURE HUNT
This method could be used to catch the attention of the students and at the same time to boost the energy for the class. This game should last for 10 minutes only. To put some thrill on it, the teacher could lessen the time limit. Here, the students form their own group of 5 so they will be having 4 groups. Each group assigned their group leader, scribe (secretary), treasure hunter, reporter, and timekeeper. The teacher then should give the instruction to the groups. After giving the instruction, the group leaders would pick randomly clues that are in a bowl or box. The clues that they will be picking may be definitions of terms, examples or anything that would lead to the desired terms. After picking the clues, the time will start. Then after the hunt, the teacher could ask the students to report what they have found and share with the class their experience.
- Media and Materials needed
- Treasure hunters’ kit
- Treasure basket (or anything where they can put the definitions they hunt)
- Map of the classroom (optional)
- Set of words (like “chemical reaction”, “Law of Conservation of Mass”, “reactant”, and “product”) and their definition
- Stopwatch (or you can use the timer projected on the screen)
- Sound effects (for a better experience of treasure hunting)
- Clues for the positions of the treasures (definition)
- Treasure hunters’ kit
- Other option
If the teacher notices that the prerequisites are well established to the students. He may use this method in presenting the new terms that they will encounter for the topic. Hence, he could change the key terms and definitions for the treasure hunt.
- Audio Visual Presentation
The teacher could present a short video of the importance of balancing equation, or even the steps of balancing the equation.
- Media and Materials
- Sound System
- The AVP (video)
To fully understand the steps on balancing equation. The teacher must demonstrate the step by step method of balancing equation. He should clarify the needs to be able to successfully balance an equation. This should last for 20-25 minutes. It is a must that the teacher ensures that he/she is catching the attention of his/her students.
- Media and Materials
- Colored chalk (to have a clearer and catchy demonstration)
- Sets of example equations
- Visual aids per steps (make it catchy and visible)
- Lapel (if the environment is quite noisy)
- Group Activity/ Individual Worksheets
Two methods could be used to have some practice for balancing equations or to have a formative assessment. The teacher could ask the students what they prefer the most. Though this might be time-consuming since this is two preparation, it would help the teacher to address the different learning preference of the students. For the group activity, the teacher would ask the group to balance 10 chemical reactions and answer 3 problems involving the balancing of equations. These equations are different from the other group’s but have the same level of difficulty. The group would eventually report to the class their answers. In checking the answers, the teacher could ask the other group to check the other group’s answer. Scores will be given to each groups’ report and to the other group who check the other group’s report. This could last for only 12-20 minutes. For the individual worksheet, if the students who do not prefer group activities, he/she should answer 8-10 chemical reactions and 3 problems with the same difficulty with the group activity. For the reporting, it is better if you would ask the students to report their group’s work in their most creative way. You could also ask your student on the best method they have employed to balance an equation effectively given a time limit.
- Media and Materials
- Manila Paper/Cartolina (for reporting) or they could use an AVP if they have enough time. In this, you will be needing a projector and laptop.
- Pentel pen or marking pen (reporting)
- Activity sheets
- Individual worksheet
- Pencil and paper for solving
- Online Activity and Portfolio
For the effective integration of technology for this instruction, the teacher must check for available websites that could help the student tests their skills in balancing equation and, at the same time, give them some tips for an easy balancing. The teacher should look for at least 3 effective sites and give the URL to the students. It is better that the site would give the immediate feedback to the student and would monitor the progress of the student’s work. The teacher could also ask his/her student to help him in finding effective website for the class activity. In this way, you are giving the whole class a chance to participate in making their learning experience effective and memorable. Letting the students choose their most preferred site would help let them be responsible for their own learning. However, the teacher must ensure that the students would participate this kind of activity and that the students have an access to the internet. Perhaps, the teacher could ask permission to have their activity held in the computer lab of the school. The teacher should also ask the students to compile their work into an online portfolio, perhaps like WordPress or other sites that could compile students work. In their portfolio, you could ask the student to treat it as their online diary and ask them to share what they have found an effective way of balancing an equation.
- Media and Materials
- 3 effective website for balancing equation (suggested sites are: http://education.jlab.org/elementbalancing/, http://www.learningliftoff.com/high-school-science-learning-activity-balancing-chemical-equations/#.WSFB82iGPIU,)
- Online Portfolio (WordPress or any)
The methods above entails active participation of each student. It is argued that to effectively address different learning style, one could use an audiovisual media or experience. (Smaldino, et al. 2004) The treasure hunt would give you the chance to catch your students’ attention and let them have a meaningful, enjoying and effective learning experience that would help a better retention of the knowledge. Audio Visual presentation, demonstration, and group activities could also help the students to have a meaningful interactive learning experience. It is also important that in employing these methods, you consider the audibility and visibility of the media that you used. Online activities would be chosen because it would give more knowledge and practice for the student even they are not in the classroom. It would also give an effective, interactive and efficient learning experience for the students. This also would help you in assessing whether your students are achieving the objectives or not. Giving time limits would also help your students to think of an effective and easy way to balance an equation in a given time. An online portfolio would also give the students to develop metacognition which is a better way to improve learning. It would also foster interactive sharing of knowledge not only for the classroom but for the internet users. Lastly, it would help you also assess your students.
Evaluation of the Commercial Materials
In selecting your AVP and online activities, you must see to it that the information given by the tools are valid and reliable. You should check whether it will foster learning or not. It is also a must that you evaluate whether the tools that you are going to use will match the learning style and characteristic of your learner.
Preview and Prepare materials
Before giving the instruction, it is a must for the teacher to check the materials that he/she will be using. Hence in this design, the teacher must preview and prepare the following, before employing it to the class:
- Words for treasure hunt (it must be feasible and matches the topic)
- Projector (check whether it is working or not, it is also a must that you familiarize using it)
- Laptop (check its battery, connectivity to the internet if needed, familiarity on utilization)
- AVP (check the validity and reliability of the content, its audio, and visibility)
- Sound system (check if it is working and on how to operate it)
- Visual aids (check if it is visible enough for the class, prepare the needed materials, such as tape, and the order of use)
- Online sites (check for its validity, reliability, effectivity and other functions, familiarize how to use it and prepare for the URLs of the site.)
- Internet Connectivity (check the internet connectivity if you are going to use the computer lab or WIFI for your class)
- Activity sheets and individual worksheets (you must check for typographical errors, clarity of instruction, visibility, and ensure enough copies for the class)
- Lapel (check if it is working, make sure that it has enough battery, charge it well, check for its audio and manage the enough volume)
- Timer (prepare the timer for the class activities)
- Colored chalks (make sure that you have enough materials)
- And check for anything that you think would help your class activities.
Prepare the Environment
It is also a must that the students have the proper and comfortable learning environment. Hence, you must consider the classroom that you will be using. If the neighboring classroom is noisy, you might prefer to close the door and windows to lessen noise. You could also use lapel to employ your instruction well, but make sure it has the enough audio, not too loud and not too soft. Check for the lighting, if you are going to use the projector, you might turn the lights off and open it for the activities. You should also prepare your projector, learning activities, for instance, the words to hide in the room, and the sound system to use. Make sure that the room has proper ventilations because it also affects the learning of the students. Make sure that the environment would foster learning, not too noisy and not too boring to the point that your students would go to sleep.
Prepare the Learners
The teacher should also prepare your students. You must see to it that they have the prerequisite before entering the classroom. You could also check their physical condition and ask them to make themselves physically, emotionally and mentally prepared for the class. Perhaps, you could let your student eat first before entering the class so that they have enough energy for the class. You could also ask them to have prior studying of the lesson. You could also ask them to make themselves presentable to everyone to boost them up. Little efforts such as making them feel that they are loved by you could also help them prepare for learning and motivate them to pursue more learning experience. Asking them to bring the needed materials would also help.
Provide the Learning Experience
To make the learning experience effective, memorable and interactive, the teacher must see to it that proper instruction, participation, and materials are used. The time limits are also followed in consideration for the next teacher. Students should also actively engage in the learning experience. So it is your duty to facilitate and motivate your students to participate in all activities. Perhaps, in your case, you could ask the other passive half of your students to try becoming active and motivate them. You could also talk to them and say the importance of each activity. You could also promote some extrinsic motivation that would help your student participate. You must see to it that their learning needs are being met and their learning preferences are also being addressed and respected. If the other half would really don’t want to participate, let them do the worksheet. Forcing them to do the things that they don’t like would not let them learn, but giving them motivation would help them learn. If they really learn in a passive way like a lecture, the demonstration method would address that. You have various methods to employ, all you need to do is make sure that the learning experience that you and your students are producing would promote effective learning and retention of knowledge.
REQUIRE LEARNER PARTICIPATION
The description of how to employ the methods are already been discussed above. You just have to make sure that immediate feedback was given to the students for effective learning to occur. Feedback is crucial especially for the other passive half of your class. Make sure that they are balancing the equation perfectly. But let them explore the other possibilities of balancing equation. You just need to motivate your class to participate in all activities and see to it that the learning activities is active, interactive, enjoying and effective enough for the class.
EVALUATE AND REVISE
Assessment of Learner Achievement
To assess your student whether they are attaining the objectives, you must do the following:
- Check whether the groups’ final output are balanced equations and the correct answers are known by the other group.
- Formative evaluation. While doing the activities, you visit each group or the individual who are doing the worksheets. You check their work but don’t give the right answer, lead them to the right answer.
- Online Portfolio. You should check the works of you students on the online portfolio that they have done for the topic. Check their progress and note the areas where they find difficulty. After noting it, you might opt to tackle about those on your next class
- Muddiest Point. You could also check the area where your students have difficulties. You could do this in your most creative way. Perhaps, you could ask your student to post note cards (that has the area they find difficulty written on it) on the designated area on the classroom before leaving the classroom.
The students must demonstrate their learning by answering all the worksheets, group activities and online activities with 95 percent and above accuracy. If demonstrated below the desired outcome, you should check the area where they find difficulty and tackle it on the next class.
Evaluation of Instruction
You could also prepare or adopt checklist or evaluation form to evaluate the effectiveness of your instruction, including the methods, materials, and media being employed. You could also let your students assess you as their teacher and know the areas where you could improve to best promote learning. After knowing all about this evaluation, revisions may be considered. The key note here is that you do not have the same students every year, and everyone has different learning style, so you should adapt your instruction relative to your students. Hence, revisions would always occur.
(Smaldino, S. E., Russell, J.D., Heinich, R., and Molenda, M. (2004). The ASSURE model (Chap 3). In Instructional technology and media for learning (8th ed), 46-78. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Retrieved at https://navelmangelep.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/instructional-technology-and-media-for-learning-8th-ed.pdf)
Effectivity of integration of TPACK in the design and the Level of Technology Integration
Upon looking at the design, technology complemented and supplemented the pedagogy and content well enough. The use of online activities is one proof that the technology could supplement the learning in balancing equation while complementing the pedagogy being employed which is an active and participatory approach. Technology will also help the teacher here to employ his/her instruction on its creative way. The use of projector to magnify the content and instruction, the use of sound system to have a clear instruction, the use of lapel to make the teacher’s voice audible enough while making sure the proper volume, and the use of laptop in presenting the AVP, demonstrate the effective integration of technology into the design. I have not seen distractions of technology here in the design, but I am more open to know if you have seen one. The level of the technology integration basing to the Technology Integration Matrix revolves around ENTRY LEVEL to INFUSION Level. Entry level in a sense that the teacher here would use the technology to deliver his/her instruction and Infusion level in a sense that the students have given a chance to choose the 3 most effective websites that they are going to choose to assess their learning. But if you see more level, I, again, would be willing to hear it from you. God bless and Thank you!