Five recommendations on how educational institutions may promote or integrate visual literacy into their curriculum or education programs:

  1. The institution must provide specific guidelines on analyzing and decoding a visual aid. According to Smaldino et. al. (2004), “learners must be guided toward correct decoding of visuals.
  2. The institution also must do a research on the cultural backgrounds of the students that they will be teaching using the visuals to adapt the visuals to the student’s context. Smaldino and his colleagues (2004) stated that in the decoding of visuals, the process is affected by the decoder’s cultural background.
  3. They must also make sure that their visuals match the preference of their students. Hence, they must do also research on the backgrounds of the students. However, according to Smaldino and colleagues (2004), the teacher must also see to it that the visuals are effective enough to foster learning.
  4. They must make their visuals simple but informative and effective enough. It must not be too distracting but not also too dull that the audience would not be hooked up by your visuals. Smaldino and colleagues (2004) argued that “simpler visuals are usually more effective, whatever the age group”.
  5. Lastly, they must ensure that the visuals that they are doing are logically arranged, that is, promoting sequence learning. Smaldino and colleagues (2004) said that the “ability to sequence…is an extremely important factor in visual literacy. Further, they must sure that it will promote creative activities. (Smaldino et. al., 2004)



(Smaldino, S. E., Russell, J.D., Heinich, R., and Molenda, M. (2004). Visual principles (Chap 4). In Instructional technology and media for learning (8th ed), 79-105. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Available at